Making your own cake flour:
Weigh out 125g (1 cup) plain flour. Take away 2 tbspn (30g) of the plain flour and replace it with 2 tbspn of cornflour.
Caster Sugar | 1 cup = 225g | 1 tbpsn = 14g
Brown Sugar | 1 cup = 200g
Granulated Sugar | 1 cup = 200g
Icing Sugar | 1 cup = 125g
Using honey in place of sugar:
225g (1 cup) caster sugar = 158ml honey + 1/2 tspn baking soda – 40ml of other liquids in the recipe like milk and lower the baking temperature by 14°C.
Milk | 1 cup = 240ml
1 cup butter milk = 1 cup milk + 1 tbpsn lemon juice
Let it sit for a few minutes till it has curdled.
~ Ensure the metal bowl (not plastic) and beaters are free from oil and water.
~ Use room temperature fresh eggs.
~ Egg whites should not have any yolks in them.
~ Beat on low speed until foamy, then beat on medium-high until it reaches the firm peak stage, switch to high speed thereafter to get stiff peaks. This ensures that the structure of the foam is stable.
~ Add a small amount of cream of tartar/ vinegar/ lemon juice to stabilise the foam at the beginning.
Minimum amount of sugar for meringue:
1 1/2 tbspn (21g) of sugar per egg white = stable meringue
2 tbspn (28g) of sugar per egg white = Italian soft meringue
4 tbspn (56g) of sugar per egg white = French hard meringue
Whipping egg whites:
Soft peaks – White foamy mixture. Peak does not hold when beaters are lifted away from the bowl.
Firm peaks – Glossy and smooth. Peak curls but will not stand.
Stiff peaks – Glossy and stiff. Peak will stand straight up and the mixture in the bowl will not slide around when you tilt it.